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TERPENES AND THE EFFECT OF SYNERGY

2022-01-12
TERPENES AND THE EFFECT OF SYNERGY

The unique character of hemp is primarily associated with cannabidiol CBD. However, the terpenes contained in it are largely responsible for the special action of this plant. More than 140 types of these essential oils can be found in dozens of other popular plant species, but here they create such a unique combination. They also play a role in creating the so-called synergy effect.

What are terpenes and terpenoids?

Terpenes are fragrant, volatile molecules that quickly evaporate and exist in the form of oil. They naturally occur in hemp and there are over 140 types consisting of hydrogen and carbon molecules. The concentration of terpenes in the plant can range from 1% to 10%, and conditions such as soil type, weather, fertilizers present in the soil, climate, or time of year affect their production. You can find them in plants like lavender, lemon peel, peppermint, cinnamon, or hops. Terpenes and terpenoids are the basis of aromatherapy, which supports the treatment of many diseases. Adding these substances to CBD oils enhances their therapeutic benefits. Terpenes in food can be encountered in spices that we use every day, and these are herbs such as rosemary, oregano, turmeric. These substances occur not only in food products but also have a wide application in cosmetics - in perfumes, creams, various preparations.

Most popular terpenes - types found in hemp:

Limonene

It is found in citrus fruits or lemon oil, giving the plant a characteristic aroma. Limonene has a relaxing effect and improves mood. It is used in the treatment of depression or anxiety because it increases the level of dopamine and serotonin. Additionally, it supports the body in the fight against chronic pain, reflux, inflammation, cancer, or heartburn.

Myrcene

This is a terpene that we most often encounter in hemp, but you can also find it in mango, lime, or hops. Its smell can be described as cardamom, herbs, or cloves. In hemp, there is about 20% of this compound and in Indian even 80-90%. Myrcene increases the permeability of cell membranes, which facilitates the penetration of other terpenes, cannabinoids, or flavonoids into cells. The action of this compound is calming, relaxes muscles. It is used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions and sleep problems.

Caryophyllene

It consists of three different compounds: beta-caryophyllene, humulene, alpha-caryophyllene. These substances occur in every hemp. Caryophyllene has anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits the development of inflammation. The smell of the substance can be described as woody.

Linalool

It stimulates neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Linalool has an analgesic effect on the body, improves mood, and CBD oils containing this substance may show increased calming effects. A plant containing the mentioned terpene has a characteristic lavender and lily of the valley aroma. Linalool is used in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's), pain, inflammation, depression, anxiety, or insomnia.

Pinen

It has the smell of a pine forest, occurring among others in rosemary, parsley, dill, and even orange peel. Pinen mainly has properties: anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, gastroprotective, anti-inflammatory.

Synergy - what is it?

The synergy effect is a kind of interaction between compounds found in hemp. These include cannabinoids, flavonoids, and terpenes. It turns out that the mixture of compounds found in hemp interacts with each other, even better affecting the body. The synergism of terpenes was first described by scientists Raphael Mechoulam and Shimon Ben-Shabat. The action of these compounds is compared to the role of the endocannabinoid system in the human body. How does the synergy effect work? Among the effects of synergy action, such changes are mentioned as:

  • Improved absorption of active ingredients;
  • Enhances the action of individual compounds;
  • Overcoming bacterial defense mechanisms;
  • Reducing the impact after side effects have occurred.

The improved action of terpenes in combination with cbd oils is based on the entourage effect, where the inactive substance increases the potential of the active substance. And examples of such action are set out below:

Synergy of compounds found in hemp:

  • Limonene, pinen, and linalool enhance the action of THC. It has also been shown that such a combination helps in the fight against acne;
  • Linalool, caryophyllene, and myrcene help in the treatment of insomnia;
  • Limonene and linalool support the action shown by, for example, Polish CBD oil;
  • Caryophyllene, myrcene, and pinen support addiction treatment;
  • CBD, CBG, and pinen are known for their antiseptic properties, such a combination copes very well in the fight against bacteria resistant to antibiotics;
  • THC and CBG - scientists show the possibility of using these compounds in cancer therapy, as potentially supporting the accepted treatment methods (including breast tumor).

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